Nora Cate Schaeffer, Faculty Director and Jennifer Dykema, Survey Methodologist have reviewed the large literature that provides the basis for recommendations about how to improve the reliability and validity of standardized measurement, whether in survey interviews or in other contexts. Building on an analysis of question characteristics and the decisions required when writing questions, they summarize implications of this research and present illustrations of revisions that apply guidelines for improving question. Please request a copy from firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com if you would like to see this article.
Schaeffer, N.C., Dykema, J., 2015. Surveys: Question Wording and Response Categories. In: James D. Wright (editor-in-chief), International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2nd edition, Vol 23. Oxford: Elsevier. pp. 764–770.